Analogy As The Core of Cognition
Douglas R. Hofstadter at Stanford University

0:05 Stanford University

0:20 Douglas R. Hofstadter, College of Arts and Sciences, Professor Cognitive Science, Indiana University, Bloomington

0:28 Thank you for your help with the uh... seating.

0:32 We very much appreciate with a lecturer of the fame and stature of Douglas Hofstadter

0:38 we get a fantastic turnout and it's a marvelous uh ...

0:41 don't worry it from someone who is coming to meet you here hasn't arrived, they will

0:46 at least hear the lecture out in the lobby. So, there is some chance to get

0:51 some small part of the action

0:54 out there and

0:56 we're just very happy you all came.

0:58 This is a presidential lecture,

1:01 sponsored by the president, and administered by the Stanford Humanities

1:05 Center.

1:06 We're very happy to have been able to invite

1:10 Douglas Hofstadter. We're even more happy that he has accepted.

1:18 Do take a look at the Presidential Lecture website which is accessible

1:22 through the Stanford Humanities' Center

1:24 website, S, H, C, dot Stanford dot E, D, U.

1:30 Glenn Worthy, who is here tonight, has invested a lot of time and attention

1:35 presenting Doug's work in the most complete and

1:39 analytic possible way. It's a, it's a real publication

1:43 on Hofstadter and worth your attention.

1:47 Should you need

1:48 to learn more about the Humanities' Center, that's also the place to go,

1:52 S, H, C, dot Stanford

1:55 dot E, D, U.

1:57 That would include of learning more,

1:59 if you become deeply curious about the

2:02 publications of materials that are out front and would like to see more about

2:05 us,

2:06 you can do it on that website.

2:09 Also, the tradition at the Presidential Lectures

2:13 is not to have "Q & A" this evening.

2:15 But, to have a real discussion seminar tomorrow afternoon

2:20 at four o'clock.

2:22 That seminar will be at the Humanities' Center and the directions, if you don't

2:26 know how to get there, are on that same website

2:30 S, H, C, dot Stanford, dot E, D, U.

2:37 So, I'm happy

2:38 to turn now to

2:42 an introducer who truly needs no introduction,

2:46 Dom Kennedy, the former president of Stanford University,

2:51 the editor of, Science, a reasonably well known magazine,

2:58 and of course

3:00 a scholar a great distinction in biology

3:03 and environmental studies.

3:06 So, I will now, with no further ado,

3:09 turn to Donald Kennedy.

3:19 this is a fantastic turnout and i hope

3:22 dot knows dot

3:24 how much of a tribute yesterday influence he's had on the thinking of it

3:28 large number of people

3:30 not only on this campus but everywhere

3:33 it's a great privilege to introduce him

3:35 his family and mine were neighbors on sam oneill hill for a time

3:39 doug left is house before i got into

3:43 hoover house but

3:44 had been on several occasions and actually became colleagues for a while

3:48 at a time during which i had persuaded him to do some teaching in human biology

3:53 program

3:53 to the benefit of our students

3:56 and i saw a great deal of lauria she moved from bio major at stanford to

4:01 science writer

4:02 and i'm glad that she and and some members of her family could

4:05 could be here

4:08 induction in bio carry it he was working on data leisure

4:12 hereafter

4:14 g_p_

4:15 when the book came out

4:16 i not only thought it was a stirring accomplishment by experienced that

4:21 voyeuristic feeling of having some association however

4:26 transient and tenuous with a great with literary triumph

4:29 nowadays i get the occasional additional dose of that by getting david kennedy's

4:34 under miss delivered mail

4:36 but fortunately dot also takes the

4:39 going with more achievement of his own and indeed so much has been set up dog

4:45 and the power and luster of his intellect

4:47 in that splendid piece by

4:50 lenward

4:51 there's not much that can be added to it but

4:55 there's a question

4:56 and the question is what kind of linguist

4:58 stab at the magician cognitive scientist hybrid

5:02 does it take to think up and they grams

5:04 that term renea

5:06 met a magical

5:08 and so on

5:10 a charismatic imagination

5:13 and an extraordinary gift for exploring how we think

5:17 by substitution

5:18 an analogy

5:20 as he explores in fluid concepts and creative analogies

5:25 they work product that is grown out of a groupie as relabel

5:29 as the fluid analogies research group

5:32 fargo

5:34 one of those short of north dakota

5:37 the catalogue

5:40 more formal

5:41 then playful like dot list him as director of any any university's center

5:45 for research on concepts and technician

5:50 my friend bill telephone was one of those whom broadcast about publishers

5:54 and other practical matters in the early

5:57 days pre

5:59 g_d_p_

6:00 bill's company w_ h_ freeman adverts profile with scientific american

6:05 of the fuel flanagan era

6:09 long-time admirers of martin gardeners wonderful louis karelian

6:14 mathematical games column in that magazine work

6:17 devastated about gardeners announced retirement

6:20 but when douglas announced as his

6:23 replacement in nineteen eighty-one everyone who do and said

6:27 how perfect

6:29 his incorrigible playfulness with language in anagrams led him to redo the

6:34 title to met a magical steamers

6:37 he didn't disappoint us in a ten-year that lasted two-and-a-half years

6:41 doug and i talked earlier today about the shared experience of being edited by

6:46 dennis flanagan

6:48 at scientific american one of the truly persistent ito restructuring and capable

6:54 editors alcohol time

6:56 i hope you won't

6:57 my my telling up

6:59 bridging story that has

7:01 some personal meaning for me doug is deeply interested in language how we use

7:04 it and put it tells us about how we think

7:08 he had an early experience at the university of oregon while doing a

7:11 p_h_d_ in physics that

7:13 had followed a good experience with math at a stanford

7:16 as a stanford undergraduate and a disappointing one

7:19 in a math graduate program at berkeley

7:22 aneta organically

7:24 at oregon he happened to valid to develop up upside long dot sideways

7:29 interest in in the question have gender is used in language it view gee how

7:34 how is it that many of us can that dead

7:37 a were saying man

7:40 when we'd met everybody net now we say guys when we meet everybody and that's

7:44 just an s_s_ does is done on this day

7:47 so it might just disinterest in linguistics sexism for some reason

7:52 linked him to a talk i had given in the very early eighties at evolved into a

7:56 senior at fleets dinner at stanford

8:00 are you something about women's times and events like swimming and the

8:03 marathon and how rapidly the performance gap between women and men had narrowed

8:09 as an example i compare the stanford women's four hundred meter freestyle

8:13 relay time in nineteen eighty-one with the best men's college time of my

8:17 undergraduate years

8:19 and discovered that the women were ten a whole seconds faster then the fastest

8:23 man

8:24 ten ten seconds is a long time if you county out and that's what i did

8:28 at the senior athletes tariffs

8:30 thus quite a good talk actually

8:34 and doug

8:35 doug put up snippet of that in without in is

8:40 his column in scientific american and i was

8:43 i was totally thrilled

8:45 it was a far more interesting take on that

8:48 subject and the snippet in sports illustrated at about the same time

8:53 that suggests a lot about the exceptional range of connections that is

8:58 prepared to trace and analyze

9:00 the essence of his work has been to understand

9:03 cognition how we construct our knowledge of our world

9:07 the notion of some core

9:09 as essential to the way in which

9:13 wlink the features and structure

9:17 of thinking and language is brought out

9:20 uh... in g_d_p_ g_d_p_ in in

9:25 speakers instructors up three

9:27 very different

9:28 even intellectual accomplishments

9:31 that speaks to the usa remakes of computers and artificial intelligence

9:36 notions or though problem the translation which is interested in

9:39 or perhaps

9:41 as a way to explore for some

9:43 underlying formal structure

9:45 in the preface to the twenty-fifth anniversary addition of g_d_p_

9:50 he tried it some critics who had seen it yet that state park about three men

9:57 that's a little like saying moby dick is a book about whaling

10:02 t_v_ is about how intimacy arises and in subsequent work douglas's explored a

10:08 variety of connections or parades with that theme

10:11 between cognition atlantic's

10:14 between what is written in one language and then translated into another

10:18 between what is left life

10:20 and what remains

10:22 not only does he navigate those boundaries he does so with the kind of

10:25 loving respect that is perhaps best captured by the fact that he and his

10:29 children danny and monica now teenagers

10:32 maintain an italian only household conversation rule

10:36 as a custom

10:37 of honoring dogs beloved like wife carol

10:40 a fellow explore

10:42 of the translation universe

10:45 at a time when the university this one

10:48 is on a crash course to embrace and support interdisciplinary work

10:52 it is especially wonderful to hear from someone who has been there

10:56 andrew is set out new benchmarks for thinking

10:59 that loops around cognitive science machine intelligence art

11:03 literature

11:04 perhaps eventually neurobiology

11:07 you get a picture of his agility and playfulness from some of the titles of

11:11 his pre sentation

11:14 the architecture of jumbo

11:16 that one's about machine learning

11:19 the slip-up allowed for that

11:22 hinged points that's all

11:24 speech stuff

11:25 and fought stuff

11:27 his biography will break the spell check feature on your computer

11:35 finally my favorite from his

11:37 recent ah...

11:40 passion for for translation

11:43 uh... you'll need to absorb this slowly

11:46 mummy neon

11:47 cutie pie

11:49 pretty dear

11:50 farris friend

11:52 fitting human against computers in poetry translation and guess who

11:59 just think that's what we could learn

12:01 by examining dogs brain with functional magnetic resonance imaging

12:07 absolutely non-invasive for those of you who are capped

12:13 while he's pursuing

12:14 applaud experiment about the relationship between art and

12:18 and music

12:19 for analogy with the never be the same

12:23 afterward

12:24 i will close by noting that not only has he done some remarkably novel in and

12:29 intellectually challenging work in the world

12:31 he has also also always fit

12:34 a gracious and kindly and humanistic guide for those who want to explore it

12:39 i'm happy to introduce

12:41 dot hostgator

12:43 stanford bs in mathematics class of nineteen sixty five

12:46 the college of arts and sciences professor of cognitive science at in

12:50 d_n_a_ university

12:52 as well as the director of the program i just described earlier

12:55 on under a different name

12:58 in his own biography he thinks indiana university in some respects stanford

13:03 institutional parent

13:05 for quote

13:06 the fresh winds of freedom

13:08 generously afforded him

13:10 by his truly open-minded university

13:13 his presidential lecture in the humanities

13:16 and arts is entitled

13:19 analogy asleep core

13:20 of cognition

13:21 please join me in welcoming dog back to st

13:43 i guess i'm a little bit on the spot here

13:47 after an introduction like that it was and i have to say also dont didn't

13:51 mention that

13:52 we used to do a little running together if used to go up to the dish from her

13:56 house and i remember competition say we used to that suggests more than once

14:02 house

14:03 by doing that one time

14:04 i was a pretty good runner facts still run and i just

14:09 missing this evening but

14:11 but it was hard to keep up with don fact i don't know if i did

14:15 and uh... still run though

14:19 abha

14:21 well i guess

14:22 that's what happens to us all her

14:25 anyway we've had allot of experiences together of various sorts and uh... he

14:29 certainly did did himself in that wonderful

14:32 wonderfully kind

14:34 and uh... broad introduction

14:37 what when i was here is a at it as an undergraduate

14:39 it saw in the early sixties i was very interested in

14:43 in understanding what the mind was i think i'd always been interested in

14:48 minds did what creativity was in and

14:53 i had the experience of

14:55 learning to program in the early sixties before us everyone computer it was a

15:00 bro's twenty located in the basement of encino how many people here remember

15:04 that

15:07 one person for that

15:10 well anyway i program that burrows to twenty and then i went on to other

15:14 program but the point is that i

15:16 got interested in and how language were and are in certain rules for language

15:21 and i don't want to go into that very much

15:23 my model for are

15:27 producing sentences was

15:29 was amazing and it had a lot of amusing things but it

15:31 what it really inspired me to do was to think about what cognition in city

15:35 certain was not a model of cognition but it was an amusing attempt and dog

15:41 and over the years then i devoted great deal of my

15:45 life to thinking about what cognition is and i guess tonight i'm going to be

15:49 telling you or some of the important

15:52 conclusions that i've come to and i don't know if i can convince anybody

15:56 but i will do my best

15:57 i have i will begin with a sort of a complaint

16:00 and uh...

16:04 arisen

16:05 breathing is in focus group that's great

16:07 uh... by the way i don't use power point for better or for worse i don't know

16:10 what that means

16:16 he'll have to put up with my handwriting and and with sloppiness and things like

16:20 that

16:21 and and so uh... e

16:24 in cognitive science cognizance conferences and journals and so forth

16:28 they always have a divide cognition up and all sorts of different pieces

16:33 and one of the pieces is always called analogical reasoning

16:37 and uh... and uh... it's usually

16:40 put together with problem solving

16:43 and uh... is sort of one little teeny part of thinking and i sort of decided

16:48 that i would put it this way that

16:50 analogical reasoning they

16:52 so it is

16:54 delaware of cognition

16:58 so

16:59 i kinda feel that that showed set off a little bit it doesn't make it very

17:03 central

17:04 now you might think that indiana would be a better demand for nl analogical

17:09 reasoning but i'm going to be a little bit more haha

17:13 that doesn't mean california either or texas or alaska first of all we're going

17:19 to get rid of the word reasoning

17:20 i don't want reasoning and analogy has nothing to do with reasoning or does a

17:24 little bit but not much

17:27 which is a misnomer and it's a misconception of what analogy is and

17:30 that's what i really want you to understand and i spose

17:33 that sort of the bottom line of this talk if we were are going to make any

17:38 connection between analogy in anna geographical situation we're going to

17:42 liken it to the interstate freeway system

17:45 and links everything together and now a doozy interstate freeway system of

17:50 cognitions not one little tiny zoldan somewhere often side

17:55 missus so that so that's the kind of uh... away of that i think about it i

18:00 mean i don't really usually think about it that would be better yesterday so

18:04 a

18:06 flavor

18:07 uh...

18:09 one of my rules which i'm sure i will disobey tonight

18:12 is don't cover your travel

18:14 and karen sees

18:15 let everybody see everything but

18:17 i may not do that we'll see if i try to come true to my own principles

18:23 so uh... has assessed to your i think of

18:26 categorization i mean story about analogy maker of course has to be a

18:29 little bit more then just analogy making so i i want to sort of show you how

18:35 things fit together

18:36 categorization is the name of the cognition game

18:39 block analogy is the mechanism that creates or and dead allows

18:44 categorization happen by categorization i mean

18:47 but deciding what something is what the essence of something is

18:51 parts not wanted sort of summarize this and i a corny

18:55 lewin elegy again analogy is the motor of the car of thought

18:58 and then we then can even write it down a sister little

19:02 thing analogy is to thinking as promoter is to a car

19:07 is to be as siesta key

19:10 and this sort of reduces it down to the old standard in all ways to be seas of

19:14 the proportional analogy looks like a fraction

19:18 and fallen that's very nice it's a kind of thing you know like uh...

19:22 shoes to foot as glove is to hand in these kinds of things that maybe they

19:26 put on i_q_ tests and s_a_t_s and things like that

19:31 but that's not how i think of analogy either

19:33 i mean that's that's a that's that's again putting into a little tiny box and

19:38 saying all of analogy is a c_b_s_ new c_d_

19:41 an internet again it misses the point

19:45 so

19:46 i don't know i cant to finding a ring and i kind of hate definitions but i

19:49 will at least sort of give you a sense analogy making is the perception of

19:54 common essence between two things

19:56 and then a couple of footnotes

19:58 sort of hedge

19:59 um...

20:01 i mean things own

20:02 have essences but uh... what i mean i'm not a uh... you know i'm not talking to

20:07 some kind of abstract glowing philosophical essence

20:10 i'm talking about essence that you perceive that the particular time

20:14 between the frame of mind if you happen to be an

20:17 and are and bite when i say things it's tempting to think that the analogies are

20:21 between the it things the external world

20:23 but i really want to say that analogies happen inside your head so that their

20:27 there

20:27 their connections between two mental representations their connections

20:31 between things inside your head

20:33 uh... which would project to the outside world and we say these things outside

20:36 out there are analogous in that's very reasonable to do

20:39 but i want to

20:41 emphasize how they go on inside the head and they are between mental

20:44 representations

20:47 up i want to give you couple of analogies some of my favorite analogies

20:52 aren't they're they're opposed

20:53 you know analogies i could give you forever but

20:57 and they give you a few that hiking car are very

21:01 interesting and kind of provocative

21:02 so begin with when i was a kid i was eight years old as i recall when i found

21:07 out about uh... a

21:09 exponents and i was in love with map and i'm was fascinated with any new

21:13 mathematical concept and i made tables of

21:16 not integers to various powers radar filled the room notebooks with these

21:21 kinds of things

21:22 so one day i was walking through the house and i saw paper

21:27 that my dad was reading and he was a physicist and had

21:30 math notation galore

21:32 and i couldn't make head or tail of it but what i did notice was that there was

21:36 are there at the little things that said you know like x of one except who in

21:41 stuff like that excellent

21:43 path

21:44 usual subscripts

21:45 so here's my

21:46 here's my little

21:48 transparency

21:49 uh... the red

21:51 you can

21:52 get the idea that i saw that ask my guests with walking the world what

21:57 operation on numbers

21:58 does this some scripting thing to do

22:01 the superscript thinking you know puts it to a power what is it subscript indu

22:05 i was really interested

22:07 and my dad told me he said all it doesn't do anything it just the way of

22:10 naming variables

22:12 and i was so silo disappointed

22:15 weird completely flattened

22:20 fast-forward forty years

22:22 fast-forward forty years

22:24 on now i'm a father of a one-year-old daughter named monica and monica is

22:29 sitting in our playroom pushing the button of the dust buster

22:33 but it was

22:35 having time of her life

22:37 and then what does she see

22:40 she sees another button

22:43 and she pushes that nothing happens and i watching her

22:47 and i go over there

22:50 i'm sitting on the floor and i get up and i go over next of monica push the

22:54 button appleton and up and i sure this is where the garbage is

22:58 and monica supports completely destroyed

23:01 and at that moment

23:03 you have to understand i hadn't thought about this thing with my dad for

23:06 probably forty years

23:07 at that moment the whole thing of the explodes and the subscript comes rushing

23:11 tonight

23:12 to my head

23:14 and haha

23:15 and i want you to project one

23:17 you know kind of spell out this analogy it's a pretty complicated one anymore

23:28 somebody said to me i guess it was done today said a lot of people make a

23:32 mistake of reading out loud their transparencies

23:35 so i don't know why

23:35 i don't know if i can wade reading this out loud this is a kind of fun but i do

23:40 i've already told it to you so maybe i won't i mean

23:42 i and i think it's interesting though that if you if you don't need

23:46 you know here's me and all my love of mathematics in the subscripts and this

23:51 is an interesting line here because i make an analogy part of the s an elegy

23:55 is an analogy i make an analogy between superscript and subscripts

24:00 and i think not there's something there

24:02 and then i get flattened

24:03 uh... by my father

24:06 so here's monica and she comes along and she makes an analogy between one button

24:10 then another

24:11 and she's helping and then she gets flattened by her father

24:16 happens to be made but thats

24:17 has the discipline status but anyway there you go mean it's it's a pretty

24:21 it's a pretty complicated analogy

24:24 four

24:26 now off

24:29 the next one

24:31 balanced that one is is ha

24:33 what you might call for reminding you that

24:36 and of a lot of analogies are reminding events and i i want to say something

24:41 immediately which is that

24:42 a lot of people think analogies are there to serve purposes

24:45 they're not there to serve purposes at all they just happen

24:48 that's all there's no purpose

24:49 there's no purpose adult they'd just

24:52 off i think they're in a certain sense of serving evolution

24:56 but that's about the only purpose if there is you think

24:59 on and ob i want to give you an analogy that occurred to me a few months ago

25:05 club

25:06 uh... i i was reading

25:08 a book that my mother had loaned me by jonathan ripon called on item number

25:12 it's at least of iraq

25:13 voyage to america discovering americans and he's

25:17 he's traveling across his first chapter he's traveling across the atlantic ocean

25:20 i was in an airplane i was flying back from california to indiana night we

25:25 replying on their first labor going to denver

25:29 and which is

25:31 perhaps the united health i don't know

25:33 anyway we were we were going to denver

25:35 hand on

25:37 the so i would serve reading this first chapter in which the john three bongos

25:42 from england from liverpool to somewhere and canada

25:46 and uh... wasn't boat called the atlantic conveyor

25:50 and the the he was very impressed by the size of this boat thought that surely

25:55 nothing could rocket but the captain told it know it's it's a talent

26:00 boat is very vulnerable

26:02 end and then

26:03 what do you know but they discovered a hurricane

26:06 there was you know in their path where it was actually coming up the atlantic

26:09 and it was

26:10 and it was going to be right in their way

26:14 and so well uname not very complicated thinking but here's what they did

26:19 there's the atlantic conveyor and there's hurricane elaine

26:23 and uh... i i'd run is a little bit off because they don't know if they went

26:26 quite that far suck but i didn't want to put in time and everything you get the

26:30 basic idea here

26:32 i mean the hurricane when off and up they went to the south deviated a little

26:37 bit mystic and and then went up and then turned back up

26:40 okay so i just read this thing and just you know i'm thinking about the atlantic

26:44 ocean this big hurricane which was

26:47 curiously enough call the worli girl by the captain

26:51 i'm thinking about this you know that an empire

26:55 it's as part of the

26:56 first chapter

26:57 it's not a major part of the first chapters just something that happens the

27:01 first chapters all about this trip across the atlantic

27:04 and so forth and so on and then i get out of denver

27:07 anup

27:08 i'm walking down the corridor

27:10 and uh... as one dozen airports and uh... and

27:15 characters that here's a picture of me

27:17 and this is

27:19 this is a woman with a suitcase

27:22 ashes crossing the carter

27:24 and uh...

27:25 and i was working a little bit to the left of politics and bank icici

27:30 on the books

27:31 she's the hurricane

27:33 or if you wish they were really girl

27:36 here

27:37 and and this quarter is the atlantic ocean

27:40 and and you know two seconds is is is today's or whatever it may be

27:46 and now i have to explain to also

27:50 this event inside my head

27:52 happened so quickly

27:54 and so fleetingly that i would not have even noticed it

27:58 if i were kind of an infant rhetoric observer of my own thinking i mean

28:02 climate you know it would have disappeared in a flash

28:06 and tab note to leave no effect on the world at all

28:09 but here it is leaving an effect on all of you now

28:12 haha

28:13 my point is analogies happen all the time for no purpose

28:17 if leading they just there the transient ages

28:21 appear and go away

28:22 okay it just that there's a your mind is filled with them

28:26 uh... now to get to the view of the poster that was made use these two

28:30 photographs which were taken at fault

28:33 uh... my parents branch back in the eighty several weeks

28:37 now those people may have thought various things about them and i'm just

28:41 going to tell you what

28:42 what is here

28:43 the upper one is in the summer nurses lovely oak tree that i know very very

28:48 well

28:49 should casting a shadow under the

28:51 noonday sun meliss

28:53 the lower one is in the winter and there is no sign at all

28:58 it's a cloudy day

28:59 what is that pat pattern that dark thing under that is

29:03 push this novel shadow if you wish that is the absence of snow

29:08 la the snow has fallen but it didn't go through

29:11 lou the tree

29:13 it got caught by the treat or no snow is on the ground and that dark patches the

29:17 absence of snow

29:18 and it's a kind of a generalization of of shadow i

29:22 you know to me it was just a sort of a trivial

29:26 connection

29:26 but quiet

29:27 it joined in many other kinds of shadows that i've thought about over the course

29:32 of my life i mean i know that in eastern oregon and maybe other places there what

29:37 they call a rain shower though

29:38 uh... which is called to the east of the cascade mountains for some hundred or

29:44 two hundred or some miles

29:46 there's at the desert

29:47 in other words the cascade mountains basically stop the clouds from moving

29:52 and and dot

29:53 and so there's no rain to the east of the cascade that's called arrange shadow

29:58 and caught and there are prob

30:01 all sorts of other kinds of shadows that i'm not going to go into

30:04 shadow is a very common metaphor people being in the shadow of their

30:08 parents or the in the shadow of world war two

30:11 moving so forth and so

30:13 but i want to just make a

30:15 curious little o analogy that may be

30:18 a new insight into the world on which is that all

30:23 well firstly they've decided that

30:25 work expanding the word shadow

30:28 expanding search of that in itself is is

30:30 part of what i wanted to tell you that

30:32 by seeing new instances of shadow work spending on sense of what the word

30:37 shadow means

30:38 this happens to be maybe my personal sense as opposed to a public sense but

30:41 it meets no

30:42 less valid

30:44 but i wanted to say that fong

30:47 we could look at the picture of snow and maybe do do something about light

30:51 we know that snow is made out of flakes

30:53 and we might just gas that because there's an analogy between light and

30:58 snow maybe light is made out of flakes

31:01 it's kind of a crazy idea that

31:03 we'll call it the light flake hypothesis i suppose it is a fairly light and flaky

31:08 hypothesis but up

31:12 cost attitude thousand and five

31:14 maybe will come back to that

31:17 another shadow this is one of my favorites ha

31:20 and

31:20 what will stop shuttles at that point

31:23 um... i was talking with a friend who is who's a talent and his brother is a

31:29 professor at some

31:30 go nhan university in northern norway and i said oh my god it must be awfully

31:35 cold up there he said noxious pretty warm and i said how can that be

31:38 he said well you know the gulfstream the gulfstream ob

31:42 is warm

31:43 and i said ya babe are allen's very far north is a job at it goes north

31:49 anna and i said but piece of the interesting thing is that if it were

31:53 where it's called a southern norway that house and said because the gulfstream is

31:57 blocked by england

31:58 and so

31:59 i i had this picture in my mind there's no i don't even see the gulf stream

32:03 which is pose to be read here

32:05 and uh... and it gets blocked by england

32:08 and so the shadow of england is on the coast of southern norway

32:12 and and the gulfstream hits the up upper part of norway so we have a shadow

32:17 thrown by gangland of the uh... the uh... the ghost of sites

32:21 to take the ganun wonderful obstruction of shadow

32:26 this is the kind of thing it analogy does to or concepts now

32:30 so here is of

32:32 just you know that this simple idea that

32:36 repeated analogies expand concepts

32:38 uh... i've taken as an effect the concept of number here

32:42 i'm not going to go into it in any detail just simply want to say that

32:46 anybody who's done any map

32:48 that we begin with the positive integers we learned account

32:52 then we learn about things like a half and a quarter and so forth and a bit

32:56 eventually

32:57 we learn about zero in the negative numbers and then after many

33:00 and all of these analogies feasible

33:03 all all generalizations that are made through analogy

33:07 and as we as we progress and go further and further

33:11 we get more and more abstract and so i've indicated two things here he

33:14 implied in haiti the ipod in

33:17 alif sub omega different kinds of entities and i could include matrices in

33:21 there and on and on and so we have all sorts of numbers and and and that could

33:27 keep on going

33:29 concept expand over our lifetime and expand for each one of us makes them for

33:33 our culture

33:36 one of the pa

33:38 key points that i want to make here though

33:41 is that

33:43 although concept expand by seeing new instances

33:47 sometimes

33:48 we have a concept that is only got one instance

33:51 but even there

33:52 it starts to spread and leak

33:54 so let's talk about that a little bit that's the basic idea here is

33:57 there is no fundamental difference between a single memory trace and the

34:02 category

34:02 by which i mean a concept no difference category concepts and thing

34:07 okay that's a very important idea of this talk and

34:11 and i'm just going to give you

34:12 the thing i call plural is a vision solve read these out loud because i

34:17 think that they're amusing

34:18 so there may be two or three young einstein's among us tonight

34:22 okay what is a young einstein that's a plural is a ship of our installer

34:26 clearly

34:27 milton babbitt is no mozart

34:29 if you happen to know milton babbitt

34:31 if if another sharp and was born in lompoc

34:34 what would happen

34:37 it's the next catcher in the ride or the soviet union's vietnam the parents of

34:40 the middle east which was once the name of beirut

34:45 some place to be achcha whispered jerusalem being described as a mecca for

34:49 tourists

34:50 haha

34:52 hacker

34:55 a bunch of treacherous quiz link spot

34:59 notice i've gone to the lower case here

35:02 meko with lower case even though it it comes from originally one thing it's cat

35:06 gets plural eyes

35:08 and quiz ling was norwegian

35:11 foreign minister or prime minister of something who

35:14 who i think

35:15 collaborated with the nazis i don't know the details

35:18 but he became a lower case word for basically a traitor

35:22 uh... and on

35:24 and then gala leow

35:25 i don't know that

35:26 the details of this but i i i have to assume that it was gala lego who

35:30 actually use the word

35:32 lou not in the plural

35:34 and with a lower case m

35:36 in other words talking about what he saw

35:39 uh... he he equated

35:42 with those things those dots that he saw through this telescope

35:46 and called those moons

35:47 those in america 'em magnificently

35:51 that floor allies something that nobody had ever ever considered

35:54 to be rather than one unique

35:57 thing in the world

35:58 supply realization is away in which

36:01 a single entity becomes

36:05 provide category and there really is no difference between a single entity and a

36:09 category

36:11 spoken

36:11 uh... so i guess i'm just saying this again

36:16 there's a no fundamental difference between seeing something of the padegi

36:19 in kind remember and seeing something as analogous to something else

36:23 in one case something you folks a concept which has one instance

36:26 another case something if you books a concept which has many instances in

36:29 which has blurred together

36:33 we come to another

36:35 very special thing about human lines

36:38 our minds are constructed over to snow not new to anybody

36:43 that with it

36:46 unlimited quality for chunky tied up what i mean is

36:52 primordial concepts in some interrelationship become

36:56 a larger unit

36:59 larger conceptual unit like moved the family or something like that

37:04 a family can't get incorporated into something larger

37:08 and and we build our concepts by taking several concepts putting together

37:11 putting a membrane around them

37:13 and then

37:15 sort of miraculously the internal components of the disappear

37:18 and we're left with just this new concept which is

37:21 kinda like a black box we don't sink it so much about that

37:26 the these things become semi visible

37:28 there's sort of lurking in the background

37:31 but if it's structured

37:32 at many levels of of hierarchy

37:34 the concepts inside the concepts inside the concepts are certainly just about

37:39 invisible and it really take some unpacking to get there

37:42 so uh... as we build up concepts they get hierarchical larger and larger and

37:47 larger and more and more complex and i

37:50 wanted to just give you one example but i thought was really very interesting

37:53 and i haven't even talked scratch the surface of this one

37:57 but take a look at it anyway

37:59 take a look at this

38:00 this is the notion of a hub

38:02 for an airline's

38:04 i mean it's just and an attempt to show you how we begin with concepts that we

38:09 acquire

38:09 when we're very very young

38:11 and i put your

38:12 things like bar

38:14 goes to woul

38:15 also we'll we'll discuss folks and hard and gives you the notion of centrality

38:20 i'm not saying these these arabs are not necessarily analogy does

38:24 these parents sort of represent the idea that this thing is sort of part of that

38:29 concept this i've gotten incorporated gland into that concept and not

38:34 precisely

38:35 i'm not idon't have time to spell it out but i want you to see this as a series

38:39 of of higher

38:41 concepts that are blocking together lower ones these are the lower once at

38:45 the top

38:46 skis for that

38:48 reversal of direction split

38:50 anyway ob so bike

38:52 and is a vehicle

38:54 the bike has wheels

38:56 carpet is a vehicle a bus is a vehicle vehicle another type of vehicles a plane

39:01 of then that plane can lead you to an airliner a bus is kind of like an

39:06 airliner airliner lead you divorce more abstract notion of an airline then we

39:11 have names which we've learned we are very small named suggest that there are

39:14 things that come in different types than we learn about brands than we learned

39:18 that companies

39:19 annette an airline is to particular type of company

39:23 moving

39:24 then we have the idea of a trip

39:26 and then a trip can be broken up into lakes and lakes can be sort of

39:30 formalized into roots

39:32 and that's attached to

39:34 airline

39:34 souls attached to a network

39:36 time appointment

39:38 timetable charged

39:40 the network

39:41 and then this notions abstract notion of network goes to note and then we have to

39:45 get gets in that same pre primary

39:48 get and then when we are very small we also learn about barclays by me

39:52 you know money we learned about him and later we learn about economizing and

39:56 saving money and then we learn about sort of downsizing and how companies

40:00 have to downsize

40:01 by the windows they didn't even put

40:03 i forgot the whole notion of city

40:06 and the whole notion of airport i didn't put that here

40:08 i mean just imagine all the concepts here that are that are all required to

40:11 go into the concept of hob

40:14 and yet when we say you know denver's united hub

40:16 do you think about all that stuff

40:18 that's you don't think it all i mean it's it's you know this is a child

40:23 concept

40:25 and apart so it's a very important part of how we think

40:29 odd so i would

40:31 another

40:31 point is that there is no fundamental difference though between thinking with

40:36 very very basic concepts and thinking with these very large concept is a very

40:39 large concepts become as familiar

40:42 and we don't see inside them we don't deal with all the stuff that's inside

40:45 them

40:46 also saw the primordial concepts are these

40:49 and some of the more sophisticated concepts or soap operas hubs sleaze ball

40:55 wilderness protection legislation or scientific breakeven for laser fusion

41:00 odd

41:01 complicated things

41:03 if you're familiar with them they're just

41:04 but very ordinary there there is familiar as the back of your hand i

41:08 thought i don't straight some rother complex concepts just for my muse minton

41:14 yours

41:14 to show you how amazing are human conceptual system is

41:20 alum so

41:22 indulge me with my reading this ride of out lab of a denver tically

41:26 so we have been solar system the concept of a slam dunk

41:29 a beltway

41:31 plagiarism jazz their size laissez-faire economics ethic ethnic cleansing

41:36 the domino theory of

41:38 condensate of communism truck the next line

41:41 bose condensation or bose condensate the wikipedia

41:45 now i want you to think to yourself

41:47 how many levels pub

41:50 structure

41:50 to explain the wikipedia which you have to know if you were to try to explain

41:54 that to somebody from two thousand years ago

41:57 what would you have to tell them in order to get across the river wikipedia

42:03 i mean you have to explain computers and networks and the way out there

42:07 and an encyclopedia publishing and uh... who knows a lot

42:11 all of

42:14 dot com

42:16 bubble

42:17 span

42:19 it's hard enough to understand what a republican a democrat or that's a very

42:23 complex hot concept

42:25 gas war

42:26 the final four

42:28 y two k the genetic called quantum cryptology a baby-boomer

42:34 cyclic

42:35 wasp

42:36 the fad i have no idea what the fed is herself

42:41 gravity no i'll still have no concept of that i know it's supposed to be sort of

42:44 some sort of supersymmetric partner to the gravatar

42:49 pork belly futures that's a great one fishing with a cat with a ph

42:54 art wrap of formative action grocery store chain dot span

42:59 presidential lecture and blacky walk

43:02 he's a concepts that we deal with very easily very fluently

43:07 and there so far removed from the concept network

43:10 that enhance might have or that on mouse might have or that a dog might have

43:16 or that a four-year-old might have

43:18 or that you cannot twelve-year-old might have so you have to think how many

43:22 levels there are

43:25 we are talking about concepts that many many levels

43:30 primordial words simple words

43:32 some compound words phrases product on the come to this i mean it's a little

43:36 street these

43:37 pa and then and then allot of our concepts are totally unlabelled

43:41 like for example

43:42 my concept whatever it was

43:45 of what happened to me when my dad told me

43:48 they don't do anything

43:50 they're they're just names of variables

43:52 that was stored in my brain

43:55 and it was waiting their to be

43:58 triggered

43:59 by some of them to the future

44:01 what was the event

44:02 monica on the floor with the dust buster

44:04 i mean and and are unit that was a concept

44:08 if you have a name

44:10 there's no name for doug being disillusioned by his father about

44:14 subscripts not being analogous to superscript in mathematics

44:19 that was anything in my brain it was a note it was there in some sense or i

44:24 don't know does the right word

44:26 but it was there

44:27 it was it was recruited noble under the right circumstances

44:30 it shared essence i hope you will agree with me there

44:34 it shared assets with monica's

44:37 disillusionment

44:38 now then so we have a lot of different kinds of things i'm going to talk about

44:41 these other things need to use in particular and scientific leaps i want

44:45 to go through this a little bit talking about how analogy making retrieves

44:51 one thing are each of these levels are not going to go through them all

44:56 but i just wanna in unnamed some primordial concerts i won't read these

45:00 outloud but noticed by the way in this list

45:03 that i am not favoring nouns

45:05 i want you to understand that when i talk about categories

45:09 i do not think that categories are always visual things like

45:14 uh... you know

45:16 overhead projector or shoe

45:18 or

45:19 you know even audience god

45:21 categories can be things like

45:23 as i said please

45:25 please

45:26 what that means is there a certain circumstances where that work

45:29 earned is evoked

45:31 the circumstance evokes that mental concept

45:35 it's a please

45:37 circumstance

45:38 there are certain circumstances if i said please to you now i wouldn't make

45:41 any sense makes no sense at all but a play you know if i'm a little

45:45 three-year-old and i want something and i say please it makes sense there's ka

45:49 circle sir certain circumstances where it is appropriate

45:52 and i'm trying to point out here that words of all sorts whether they're

45:57 adverbs or prepositions or pronouns or burbs or nouns

46:02 they are all categories and their faulty will be good and most of them are not

46:06 visual

46:06 most of them a lot of them are not sensory whatsoever

46:10 and theories

46:11 and of

46:13 of categorization mostly are involved with this will categories

46:17 visual objects it so mistaken

46:19 that is not where the action is

46:21 and but one of my colleagues who i respect very greatly said

46:26 that he thought karne that categorization that this kind of level

46:30 is very very straightforward it's just a matter of feature detectors

46:33 and i think all my goodness what a we are not on fb sent from the same planet

46:38 i don't think categorization at that level is anything to do with feature

46:41 detectors

46:42 on and maybe they play a little rolled it it's not

46:46 really

46:47 that's another thing that's for tomorrow that's not for today

46:50 okay simple concepts

46:52 the novels a primordial here's some you know

46:55 they're getting a little more sophisticated share i remember there was

46:58 an exhibit of chairs at the san francisco international airport some

47:02 years ago wonderful exhibit of crazy chairs

47:05 then i got books of chairs you can buy books of

47:09 thousands of different kinds of chairs

47:11 the variety is is mind boggling the same for the letter a and ob

47:16 tell me the tell me the

47:20 the features of a mess

47:21 if we're talking about visual categories were the features of a mess i would like

47:25 to know which neurons which feature detectors

47:28 in my brain fire when i see a mess

47:31 what what about the feature detectors for the word probably or for probably

47:35 situations and how about for

47:37 probably

47:38 which we say sometimes and other times we don't water probably situations as

47:44 opposed to the probably situations and substitute

47:47 come on

47:49 i mean

47:51 my point is here with the word like well

47:53 i know what part of speech that is it might be an energetic shimmering

47:57 i think it's something like an interjection maybe it's an adverb it's

48:00 little blurry what it is

48:02 that's not my point

48:04 up my point is that these words that have nothing to do with visual

48:09 categories visual object

48:10 these are folks by circumstances

48:13 there are welll situations

48:16 and you know how to use them

48:17 and if you saw how well

48:19 in a save written by a foreigner

48:22 or in an email written by foreigners are they don't know how to use that right or

48:25 they would put some other word miseration puttin well

48:28 you know you know where the word well does appear native speaker of english

48:34 because there are well dot dot dot situations

48:37 and the same for high

48:39 kind of but anyway no kidding and so forth and so on

48:43 um...

48:44 compound words

48:46 getting a little bit more complicated again i'm not going to review this list

48:50 but just giving you a sense of

48:52 compound words that are a typical that we use all the time

48:56 off some of them have two components some three four five six

48:59 it's a little blurry doesn't matter

49:01 they get bigger and bigger and bigger and this sort of no no limit

49:05 cough raises

49:07 uh... so they just give you a few phrases that happen to think of today at

49:12 random

49:13 we all know these

49:14 and i'm not going to be the matlab there but for the grace of god go on

49:18 pretty please with sugar on top of that that's a nice one

49:21 been there done that

49:24 well i can't help but read well excuse

49:26 me

49:28 put your money where your mouth is

49:31 little

49:32 that's for sure

49:34 and those

49:35 these part you've boat by situations

49:38 these are categories

49:41 these are categories

49:43 and i want you to understand that all these things are mental categories

49:48 uh...

49:50 and how do we judge

49:52 whether that category me

49:54 the situation we're facing

49:56 no is a member of this category

50:00 proverbs ok so i've listed a few proverbs random

50:04 what software do sauce for the gander i would say that one very often but i do

50:08 say speak of the devil all the time

50:11 damned if i do and damned if i don't i say that all the time

50:15 go directly to jail do not pass go do not collect two hundred dollars

50:19 hi i call that a proper bed in all its maybe it's not exactly a proverb

50:24 began this categorize that maybe i made a bad analogy here

50:27 uh... it's all greek to me back to square one

50:31 will cross that bridge when we come to it and so forth song

50:35 i got some of these ideas in fact i was deeply influenced by an article that i

50:39 read in rome nineteen seventy five by jo becker who is here tonight

50:43 called the praise all lexicon

50:45 and jump pointed out that

50:47 what we have an airhead is far far richer than a set of words when we talk

50:51 about her mental lexicon

50:53 and by by can't possibly do justice to insulate full and stimulating article i

50:58 mean very very inspiring article

51:00 com and one of his principles was that

51:03 the article should

51:04 applied with self and he took a lot of the idioms that used throughout the

51:08 article talked about them and listed in his lists

51:11 i've always a follow that example

51:14 uh... but prob roads this is something that broader shank pointed out proverbs

51:18 by situation labels

51:20 we use them

51:21 we weep

51:22 in fact sometimes proverbs are boil down into just a single word like sour grapes

51:27 i know that sounds like two words but i see it with a hyphen

51:30 uh... uh... sour grapes you know somebody's somebody's didn't get a job

51:35 that they put said they wanted an unnamed said i'd probably wasn't would

51:39 have been interesting to live in

51:40 no in edmondson our albert or whatever that

51:44 is alberta

51:47 i wouldn't want to live in edmondson

51:49 sour grapes

51:50 you know is sort of

51:51 one

51:55 i'm going to go down to the

51:57 really one word level and i want to talk about the analogies that i had to make

52:01 when i went to italy

52:02 to the

52:04 well it's a bit of research institute in sorrento

52:06 i spent a year there was a very austere plays a very nice place but rather

52:11 austere and there were people at many levels bureaucrat scientists students

52:17 of

52:18 for the people

52:20 walking the quarters

52:21 and i never quite new people were they would say hello

52:24 to me and i couldn't quite figure

52:25 and so the question that i had to face at uh... you know from the very

52:28 beginning

52:30 was what you say to these people

52:32 when you run into them in the quarter

52:34 and you don't even know quite who they are you recognize them any sort of know

52:37 who they are you

52:38 have spoken to them and you know definitely who they are you know their

52:41 name

52:41 or you know them pretty well they're kind of a friend you've eaten lunch with

52:45 them once or you few our friend

52:47 and naively being american i would say child

52:52 that was wrong

52:53 you don't say child people that you are not on familiar terms with

52:57 main chala something you can say to somebody say moved to but you don't say

53:01 style too

53:02 you know

53:03 the director of the institute

53:06 there just doesn't matisse's work is a good job of lorena see-saw ave and so

53:10 they sort of intermediary

53:13 and armed

53:13 i earned this and abut but i know in the last was not a native speaker and

53:19 everytime at every moment as i was walking down the carters

53:22 i had to deal with it

53:24 on the spot

53:26 categorization zz

53:27 is this is the child person i saw the person or one jornal person

53:31 and you know and it's sometimes that would mix them up and i'll get them

53:34 confused and blend them

53:36 but it was it was you know a gradually it kinda got clearer and i got

53:41 at and i was following the what i saw other people doing i was making

53:45 analogies

53:48 and on that not only analogies what other people did work analogies between

53:51 you know people this person is like that person to me and so i said okay spices

53:57 sunday that personal success within the spurs

54:01 so words individual words heart

54:05 the locus of a fight

54:07 every time you

54:09 trying to figure out what word to you

54:11 the subterranean fight

54:12 going on mostly hidden

54:14 and i want to just give you a

54:16 little example of this column

54:20 all of my friends kelly and decorative selling my house and on

54:24 i think i'm referring to my office

54:27 and kept on thinking what is my office have to do with my house it's over you

54:30 know across campus

54:31 and then i realize of course they're talking about study

54:35 and so are

54:36 we

54:38 talked about this is what he was caught by office when i called my study

54:42 makes homes here seems like your office

54:45 so that doesn't seem like my office

54:47 and it seems like my study and my offices across campus

54:51 and some then we talked a little more and they said well

54:55 you know in our house on our top floor

54:57 where we have to do our work or we have our books on our computers

55:02 that's where our office

55:04 we have a home office was where we do our work

55:07 and you have your top floor which is not referred for but your second floor

55:11 you have computers here books and you do your work there

55:14 and it maps perfectly

55:17 flow to them it was totally obvious that this was my office

55:21 and to me it was totally obvious that that was my study because i kept my dad

55:24 is my prime as my prototype

55:27 heat on them

55:28 upper floor of our house upon murata

55:30 he had a study

55:31 and which he had his

55:33 frieden calculator and his book

55:35 and his things

55:36 and and it was just like what i did to his office was down on campus

55:40 and so to me it was the

55:42 disputes and no brainer

55:44 and it was very interesting to see that both behind both of our visions

55:48 there were analogies

55:49 and it showed

55:51 that

55:51 word choice is guided by analogy skip transparencies here

55:59 and on

56:00 uh... i can see i have so many things are not going to be able to

56:04 really go through them all but

56:06 uh... i want you to see this picture which illustrates

56:10 what goes on and word choice

56:12 i have not labeled the x-axis

56:14 but the x-axis in these bar graphs is sort of

56:19 it's a one-dimensional reduction of what you michael semantic space

56:23 semantic space is a multi dimensional space of concepts

56:27 and i've reduced down to one dimension i pretended that they're just concepts

56:30 along one dimension

56:32 and so they're on facing a situation

56:34 which might evoke you know a word like dog

56:37 and some dog is that is the big winner it's very activated in

56:41 and maybe uh...

56:43 box is a little bit activated i don't know i'm just making this up maybe katz

56:47 a little bit activated and so forth

56:49 and so there we have it in and at that

56:51 that's a big dog is so towers above the others

56:55 enough that it's a big winner and there's no

56:58 visible

56:59 haworth audible election say competition

57:03 a lot of the time when we speak

57:05 their is audible competition

57:07 i want to talk about the audible competition

57:10 that we hear

57:11 when we are making

57:13 when we're speaking

57:15 and so

57:16 i'm gonna talk about word blends

57:19 here's just a few maybe these i will read to you because i think they're all

57:23 nice examples

57:24 i have collection of

57:26 literally hundreds of

57:27 hundreds maybe thousands of word blends

57:30 higher i'd just picked a few at random today

57:33 and these are these are ones that i just listened to a picked them up

57:38 this was me at the

57:39 sumeet

57:41 calls on the phone is danny there that's my son i don't know all of us at

57:45 bell embassy and check

57:48 trivial

57:49 everyday ordinary thing it reveals

57:52 competition

57:52 it reveals subterranean competition

57:57 don't leave your car there i say to somebody in you may get a ticket

58:01 neighbor might now this is kind of thing nobody would here

58:04 i mean i pay attention these things sort of my profession

58:07 and so i do hear them

58:08 but most people just don't hear these things

58:11 danny my son my love this one

58:13 i can't keep all these things in my bread at the same time

58:16 i thought that was wonderful brain and had

58:20 uh... he also said hey wait up all done with you

58:23 that was to his sister she was about to go to the grocery store anyway tuple gum

58:27 with you

58:28 gung is common gulp

58:30 just a nice blend of two different ideas

58:35 my administrative assistant helga said every morning i took a captain ride

58:40 some dutiful beautiful and the mayor of bloomington was on the radio and he

58:43 talked with sucking about how

58:45 uh... how uh...

58:47 we have to be diligent in uh... in

58:52 in putting in bike paths and other kinds of things in the town

58:56 and i thought that was wonderful blend because it's it's vigilant and its

59:00 diligent

59:01 and it also has a little bit of village in it

59:06 so fascinating country

59:07 now i don't want you to think that blends are always that obvious

59:11 i want you to understand the blends can be extremely

59:14 extremely subtle

59:15 officers some

59:17 examples um...

59:19 just to

59:21 that

59:22 haha these were in the course that i was giving last semester called something

59:26 like analogy and words and concepts

59:29 and author i was talking to a class at one point i just i mean

59:33 i must have made

59:34 five hundred www

59:36 over class session

59:39 today who knows how many errors are made they are not discrete things because

59:41 that comes with different levels of

59:44 strength

59:44 but maybe major blend maybe major errors today i've made

59:49 fifteen-year maybe we have made

59:51 under right now

59:52 but anyway every day there was making five hundred and i noticed about three

59:56 because you can't spend all your time on a train yourself but i did notice at one

60:00 point i said

60:02 as it says here i was having trouble finding finding the f was a little too

60:06 lengthy

60:07 and i said that anybody here that nobody even heard it

60:10 as well okay but it was a little longer you want to know why

60:14 and they said me i guess they were captive audience

60:18 heather

60:21 analyzed that kind of the worst competition in my hand i happen to know

60:24 what applies

60:25 it at least part of it i don't know the whole story

60:27 but at least i know

60:28 one of the world was

60:30 find any other was figure out

60:32 and i couldn't quite beside now how much else was going on in smite inside my

60:36 head i don't know inskeep

60:42 it was

60:43 it was poised on the banister

60:45 was caused on the banister

60:47 was pose it was poised was just a slight

60:50 we're on

60:51 vowel

60:52 scaly distortion of the bow

60:54 that you see these kinds of things

60:58 of things

61:00 every word that i am saying probably has a slight error in it and that's my point

61:04 every word has a subterranean fight going on inside you don't know you don't

61:11 hear at even though i don't hear it i'm not privy to what's going on underneath

61:15 the surface

61:16 but sometimes i can feel it and sometimes you can hear little

61:19 hesitations

61:20 may just be a hesitation before the word starts it may be the lengthening of a

61:24 consummate maybe distortion of a bowel

61:26 it may be a funny intonation

61:28 all of those our revolutionary of the fight

61:32 between

61:33 words

61:34 the analogies that are struggling to

61:37 takeover in to beat the other ones out

61:40 phrase blends

61:41 i hope i'm coming to an end

61:44 uh... phrase blends i won't we desire lab

61:47 i think uh... well maybe out of these are funny bizarrely and phrase blends

61:51 are not always funny

61:53 i'm not you know when these people collect

61:56 because it's funny new publisher to do as a kid say the darndest things work

62:00 whatever that's not my reason i think errors are wonderfully funny at times

62:04 but i don't collect them for that purpose i collect them because i'm

62:07 interested in understanding what goes on in the minds of human beings so heres

62:12 hopkinton email this is typed this is not spoken since typed i have it still

62:17 i hope the package got there and one ship

62:22 uh... from a native speaker

62:25 odd native speakers talking two of them talking in a restaurant near the noticed

62:29 this comment let me just went by not nobody heard anything

62:32 but he was a real easy to lucky guy

62:35 easy going to have to go to this when i said eyes should count my lucky stars

62:40 i set it on the phone and then i said white

62:43 count my lucky stars count my blessings thank my lucky stars okay

62:48 i mean just these kinds of things are a dime a dozen

62:51 and that was a dime a dozen situation right away

62:55 categorize that put my finger right on the essence there

62:58 op this one i tiket

63:00 an email when i was very tired and i wanted to hit the sack

63:04 and i said i'm worried that my editor is going to hit the stack

63:09 and i thought that was a marvelous blend of hit the ceiling

63:13 blow his stack and my own feeling that i wanted to hit the sack

63:18 okay an end

63:19 my demat one-time at indiana university was trying to lure

63:23 person

63:24 to be in cognitive science and he made this marvelous marvelous statement

63:28 that will pull no stops and turns to get in

63:33 i mean this

63:37 this is amazing

63:42 all right so i've already said this but i just say it again because i want you

63:45 to see it

63:47 in writing every effortless category assignment is actually a seething

63:51 subframe battle of analogies

63:53 when the battles a landslide there's no evidence one battles close there's

63:57 evidence school or

64:00 so

64:00 cocker coming really to the end here

64:03 plot is

64:04 the highest

64:06 level of abstraction

64:08 seeking i'm sorry the highest level of abstraction

64:10 putting one's finger on the essence of the situation

64:14 and then bouncing back and forth between

64:16 the actual situation

64:18 and the essence that one found in one's memories

64:22 in one's memory

64:23 i'm going to give you and example that i think it's quite charming and it's

64:26 actually saying i found out about last year

64:28 alright spent a long-time in the year two thousand five working on talk called

64:35 wasn't called it was about feinstein's analogy making

64:38 i wanted to do something for the on the sme lobbyists

64:42 two thousand five and it was a hundredth anniversary

64:45 and i had the great pleasure of giving this talk in physics department few

64:49 places

64:50 about the analogies that einstein made not only in nineteen oh five but in

64:53 others

64:54 and on

64:56 what i was really expanded

64:57 was i've never known how i'm stunned

65:00 created the concept of that we now know as the full time

65:04 and it was what he thought of as his most revolutionary

65:07 uh... ever idea

65:09 and i want to give you a sense of how we did and i can't

65:12 obviously

65:13 give u much of this incident but let me to police

65:17 just give you a slight since so we begin with

65:20 something that was known this is the

65:23 basically what's called the black body spectrum what it basically says if you

65:26 have

65:28 radiation bouncing around inside a cavity

65:30 at a certain temperature

65:32 different amounts of different energies and this sort of uh... at most amount at

65:36 a certain pre peak energy

65:38 uh... and you know that some sort of the wavelength

65:42 the way that way but without frequency

65:45 is sort of the most predominant

65:46 and then there's less and less on either side of it longer wavelengths olestra

65:50 order wirthlin celeste

65:52 now there is another situation

65:54 art that was a situation people didn't understand

65:57 people did understand situation of

66:00 well thanks to maxwell and boltzmann of an ideal gas an ideal gas inside a

66:04 cavity

66:05 where people knew that actually didn't really know for sure but they thought

66:09 at the behavior of an ideal gas was due to molecules bouncing around inside

66:13 and if they assumed that it was not jewels they could make some mathematical

66:17 calculations and figure out what the curve should be and they've figured out

66:20 the formula for a bell shaped curve that looked like that that said

66:24 that for all the different kinetic energy is that you have a new can

66:27 replaced connecticut as you can don't like that word with velocity

66:30 so for all the different velocities the speeds but the molecules could have

66:34 you know the low-speed there weren't very many

66:36 high-speed there weren't very many but at some intermediate speed

66:40 there are a lot

66:41 and and this was the distribution and in it looked kinda like that

66:45 now not this was around for anybody to see you ever understand but nobody

66:50 thought about nobody connected these two ideas until einstein and einstein said

66:55 this looks similar to me

66:58 and so i think that you know maybe it's possible these thing at this thing over

67:02 here the ideal gas we think is has been made of fo kore parcels particles

67:09 molecules

67:11 and so maybe it's possible

67:12 that light is also made a particles and he did a lot of elegant mathematical

67:18 calculations has been a check this out doing calculated the entropy of these

67:21 systems and i won't go into any of the details basically a bell shaped curve

67:25 annabel shaped curve the analogy between those two like the analogy between mike

67:29 to shadows light shed on this motion like decided it like maybe made flakes

67:35 i'm stein decided hundred years before me there by a bit like might be made out

67:40 of particles

67:42 and are and that was the what nowadays we call the like one of my papa sis and

67:47 that was

67:48 the most revolutionary discovery on sky diver mehta came directly out of a

67:53 simple connection between two bell shit curves essential

67:57 alright well

67:58 i guess i m coming to the end of all i need to say is on my last transparency

68:02 cell

68:03 strokes of genius are made of analogies and personal insights and political

68:07 decisions in dinner table conversations and need to comments which i didn't

68:11 cover unfortunately in random reminding even instantaneous categorization and

68:15 blends of all sorts

68:16 are all native analogies might all of cognition also be made of analogies

68:21 that's the cognition core hypothesis remember you've heard it first here

68:33 or please visit our stanford don t